# Dirichlet *L*-functions

## Dirichlet *L*-functions

## Definitions and Basic Properties

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{s}{\chi} = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\chi(n)}{n^s} }}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \realpart{s} > 1}}**&

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi(n)}}**is a Dirichlet character~

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \pmod{k}}}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{s}{\chi} = \prod_p \left( 1 - \frac{\chi(p)}{p^s} \right)^{-1} }}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \realpart{s} > 1}}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{s}{\chi} = k^{-s} \sum_{r=1}^{k-1} \chi(r) \HurwitzZeta@{s}{\frac{r}{k}} }}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle s}}**if

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi \neq \chi_1}}**, and for all

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle s}}**(

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \neq 1}}**) if

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi = \chi_1}}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{s}{\chi} = \DirichletL@{s}{\chi_0} \prod_{p \divides k} \left( 1 - \frac{\chi_0(p)}{p^s} \right) }}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi_0}}**is a primitive character (mod

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle d}}**) for some positive divisor

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle d}}**of

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle k}}**&

hold for all

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle s}}**if

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi \neq \chi_1}}**, and for all

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \neq 1}}**) if

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi=\chi_1}}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{1-s}{\chi} = \frac{k^{s-1} \EulerGamma@{s}}{(2 \cpi)^s} \* {\left( \expe^{-\cpi \iunit s/2} + \chi(-1) \expe^{\cpi \iunit s/2} \right)} \* G(\chi) \DirichletL@{s}{\overline{\chi}} }}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle {\displaystyle G(\chi) = \sum_{r=1}^k \chi(r) \expe^{2 \cpi \iunit r/k}}}}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi}}**is a primitive character (mod

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle k}}**) &

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \overline{\chi}}}**is the complex conjugate of

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi}}**

## Zeros

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{-2n}{\chi} \hiderel{=} 0 \text{\quad if\quad} \chi(-1) \hiderel{=} 1 }}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle n = 0,1,2,\dots}}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{-2n-1}{\chi} \hiderel{=} 0 \text{\quad if\quad} \chi(-1) \hiderel{=} -1 }}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle n = 0,1,2,\dots}}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{1}{\chi} \hiderel{\neq} 0 \text{\quad if\quad} \chi \hiderel{\neq} -1 }}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \chi_1}}**is the principal character~

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \pmod{k}}}**

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://vmext-demo.wmflabs.org/v1/":): {\displaystyle {\displaystyle \DirichletL@{0}{\chi} = \begin{cases} \displaystyle -\frac{1}{k} \sum_{r=1}^k r \chi(r), & \chi \neq \chi_1, \\ 0, & \chi = \chi_1. \end{cases} }}**